Background of the Country and its biodiversity

Natural Geographic Framework

Lebanon is located in the Middle East at the east end of the MediterraneanImage removed. (33°00'N latitude and 35°50'E longitude) and at the crossroads between Europe, Asia and Africa. Lebanon is bordered in the North and East by Syria and in the South by Palestine.

Lebanon covers an area of 10,452 km2 with an average width of 48 km and a length of 225 km (Figure 1) and it is divided into eight administrative regions called Mouhafazas: Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Bekaa, Akkar, Baalbak-Hermel and Nabatieh.

Lebanon is influenced by the Mediterranean and provided as such by a variable wealth of habitats with its islands, coastal lands, rivers and high mountains. Four principal factors have interacted in this region to produce an exceptionally rich and unique biodiversity: biogeography, geology, ecology and historic human settlements in the Mediterranean area (Blondel and Aronson 1999).

More than any other region in the world, the Mediterranean region best exemplifies the environmental change in response to man environment interactions. Lebanon is an integral region in the Mediterranean Basin, it falls within a recognized center of plant diversity and is considered a global hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

Lebanon has highly mountainous with a mosaic of biotopes and natural environments, dominated by a typical Mediterranean climate (Blondel and Aronson 1999). The topography of the country imposes various micro-environments for both terrestrial and fresh water biodiversity, most ecosystems, however, have narrow ranges and their biotypes are struggling for existence against a changing environment. There are five geomorphological regions in Lebanon (CDR/ECODIT-IAURIF, 1997):

  1. Coastal zone, 250 km long, included the shoreline and continental shelf, the coastal plains and the foothills of Mount Lebanon up to elevations of 250 meters.
  2. Mount Lebanon range, about 160 km long and 25-40 km wide, includes middle and high elevation zones above 250 meters. It rises from Akkar in the North and extends South to the hills of Jabal Amel. Mount Lebanon peaks at 3,088 meters at Kornet es-Saouda in the north.
  3. Beqaa plain, a land depression separating the Mount Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon ranges. It comprises an 8-12 km wide fertile corridor and is about 120 km from North to South. The Beqaa plain is drained by the Aassi River from the North and by the Litani River from the South
  4. Anti-Lebanon range, extends across the Lebanese-Syrian borders. It peaks at 2,600 meters (Tallat Moussa). Slopes are generally more gentle compared to Mount Lebanon. The southern sections of he Anti-Lebanon range include Jabal el Cheikh (Mount Hermon), which intercepts rainwater and redistributes water into at least three main watersheds across Lebanon, Syria and Palestine.
  5. South Lebanon, an elevated plateau that extends a short distance inland from the western shores of South Lebanon to the Mount Hermon foothills in the East. This region is intersected by many seasonal streams flowing from west to east and discharging into the Mediterranean Sea.


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Figure 2: Geomorphological regions in Lebanon
Source: World Bank, 2018


Geologically, Lebanon consists almost exclusively of limestones. Most are of Cretaceous origin, with Jurassic limestones in some areas, principally in the south. Only in a few places, especially in the north at Akkar, do basaltic rocks appear. Briefly, the topography consists of a narrow coastal plain and two imposing mountain ranges (Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon) separated by the Beqaa Valley (at 800–1000 metres), which is a part of the African Rift complex and which is composed of eroded material from the mountains. The Lebanon range mostly rises from the sea and gradually decreases in altitude to the south. The southernmost point of the Anti-Lebanon is the highest part of the range on the Hermon. Further north, the Anti-Lebanon Mountains gradually decrease in altitude (figure 3).

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Figure 3: Geological map of Lebanon (Dubertret, 1955)
Source: Faour, Ghaleb. (2004). FOREST FIRE FIGHTING IN LEBANON USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS. 10.13140/RG.2.2.28371.78884.


The climate is subject to considerable variation according to altitude and locality. Generally it can be described as Mediterranean, with a few particularities. Predominantly westerly winds bring abundant rain—principally in winter—while the summers are mainly dry. Coastal areas receive over 800 mm of rain p.a., and most mountains areas over 1000 mm. Most rain falls on the western slopes of the Lebanon range, with the summits receiving less than lower areas. The Beqaa valley and Anti-Lebanon generally receive less than 700 mm and the Hermel semi-desert in the northern Beqaa less than 250 mm. In coastal areas, the mean temperature during the year is 20 °C while above 1800 meters it is around 10 °C. Most high mountains in both ranges are snow-covered until July or August and on the peaks, isolated pockets of permanent snow occur in shaded places (figure 4).

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Figure 4: Rainfall map of Lebanon (modified from Plassard, 1971) Source: Jomaa, Ihab & Abi Saab, Marie Therese & Skaf, Sleiman & Haj, Nisrine & Massaad, Randa. (2019). Variability in Spatial Distribution of Precipitation Overall Rugged Topography of Lebanon, Using TRMM Images. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. 09. 369-380. 10.4236/acs.2019.93026.


Biodiversity overview

The Mediterranean region which belongs to the Mediterranean biome is one of 25 hotspots of biodiversity in the world and ranks third in the world among hotspots in both plant diversity and endemism, surpassed only by the ultra-diverse Tropical Andes and Sundaland. (Figure 5)

Of the 25,000 species of vascular plants in this hotspot, 13,000 (52 percent) are found nowhere else in the world. Many of the endemic species are not evenly distributed over the Mediterranean region but concentrated on islands, peninsulas, cliffs, and peaks. It encompasses the Mediterranean vegetation that is the mirror of the five Mediterranean climates. The Mediterranean hotspot is characterized by ten "mini-hotspots" within the larger area, where unusual amounts of original vegetation and endemic species still survive. These mini-hotspots cover about 15 percent of total land area but account for 37 percent of the region's endemic species, establishing their status as conservation priorities in the Mediterranean Basin.

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Figure 5: The 25 hotspots of the World
Source: Meyers et al., 2000


The middle elevation zone of Mount Lebanon is possibly the most diversified part of the country.The marked climatic variability over short distances (due to the presence of two mountain ranges which run perpendicularly to the direction of the path of the atmospheric circulation) partially account for the wide diversity of ecosystems within this limited land area. However, the above regions encompass the following identified habitats (Ramadan-Jaradi & Ramadan-Jaradi, 1999):

  1. Islands: Three protected islets (Ramkine, Sanani and Palm) at 5.5 km off Tripoli, in the north. they occupy five km2 and consist of rocky shores and sand beaches, with scattered low bushes, scrubs and annual herbs (figure 6).Image removed.

    Figure 6: The 3 protected islets (Ramkine, Sanani and PAlm on Tripoli

  2. Coasts: the continental shore extends for c. 250 km. River mouths and coastal mudflats are included in this habitat type. Cliffs and sandy or shingle beaches are frequent on all coasts. Heavy demographic pressure has resulted in the disappearance of most coastal plants.
  3. Urban areas: include parks and private gardens. One of the chief characteristics of urban habitat is the large number of exotic plants such as Casuarina, palms, agaves and many species of Acacia.
  4. Coastal plain: usually narrow, but non-existent in places where the mountains rise directly from the sea. Only the Akkar plain, north of Tripoli, and Tyre plain in the south possess the characteristics of a wild plain, ie. little grazed grassland. In most area there is cultivation, eucalyptus woodland, fruit orchards and pine plantations (figure 7).Image removed.

    Figure 7: Lebanon map showing the narrow coast line - source: El Zaatari, Sireen. (2017). The central Levantine corridor: The Paleolithic of Lebanon. Quaternary International. 466. 10.1016/j.quaint.2017.06.047.

  5. Maquis: the climax vegetation of the Lower Mediterranean zone is maquis with Quercus, Sarcopterium, Terebinthus, Ceratonia, Laurus and other low trees, with stands of Clematis, Smilax, Lonicera and Asparagus. It is still found locally, principally in inaccessible areas e.g. ravines.
  6. Garrigue: excepting the coastal plain, much of the Lower Mediterranean zone is semi-open to open garrigue woodland.
  7. Olive groves: usually on terraced slopes in the Lower Mediterranean and lower parts of the Middle Mediterranean zones (figure 8).Image removed.

    Figure 8: “Sisters” or the Olive trees of Noah, are among the oldest olive trees in the world found in the community of Bechealeh, Lebanon. Some 6,000 years old, historians say these have Biblical origins –Source:

  8. Pine forests: forest blocks—principally of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea—extend throughout the Lower, Middle and Upper Mediterranean zones (figure 9).
  9. Oak forests: these comprise Quercus calliprinos in the Lower Mediterranean zone; Q. calliprinos and Q. infectoria in the Middle Mediterranean zone; Q. calliprinus, Q. infectoria and Q. cerris in the Upper Mediterranean zone; and some Q. cedorum and Q. brantii look in the Cedar zone (figure 9).
  10. Cedar forests: this habitat—consisting of Cedrus libani trees—is now known from just 12 limited stands from north Lebanon to Arz Maasser Al Chouf, and totals only c.1700 ha (figure 9).
  11. Fir forests: Abies cilicica also occurs in the Cedar zone in north Lebanon, from Qammouha to its southern limit at Ehden (figure 9).Image removed.


  12. Tragacanth: represented by stony and rocky hills in the Subalpine and Alpine zones with scattered low, rounded or flat spiny semi-shrubs such as Vicia, Erodium, Astragalus, Onobrychis and Acantholimon, interspersed at lower levels with stands of Berberis and Phlomis. Scattered stands of Juniperus excelsa still occur in Subalpine areas (figure 10)Image removed.

    Figure 10: Juniperus excelsa in Dannieh
    Source :

  13. Anti-Lebanon hills: relatively arid uplands which receive considerably less rainfall than corresponding altitudes in west Lebanon.
  14. River valleys: the Lebanon range, particularly on its west side, and the Beqaa are bisected by rivers and streams with their own peculiar vegetation: Nerium oleander, Platanus orientalis, Rhododendron ponticum and Drosera rotundifolia among others. The softness of the limestone has allowed even small rivers to create impressive valleys, in some places with near-vertical sides (figure 11).Image removed.

    Figure 11: Valley of Nahr Ibrahim - Chouwen

  15. Orchards: found throughout the country; on the coast bananas, loquat Eriobotrya japonica and Citrus are the most frequent; below 800 meters, the hills have extensive olive groves (treated separately), mid-altitudes have peaches and apricots, and higher areas cherry, apple and pear plantations (figure 12).Image removed.

    Figure 12: Citrus orchards in Tyre

  16. Cultivation: cereals are farmed in Akkar and Tyre plains, and vegetable cultivation is practiced throughout the country, particularly in the Beqaa valley and its fringes
  17. Semi-desert: limited to a small area of the Hermel, north Beqaa, where rainfall—partially inhibited by the high mountains—is just 250 mm pa. It is a direct extension of the Syrian Desert via the Homs depression. Among the typical plants are Artemisia, Hammada, Salsola, Achillea, Scorzonera (figure 13) and Gymnarrhenea (found once in a dry place).

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    Figure 13: Scorzonera libanotica Boiss. : Endemic plant from semi-desert areas in Lebanon
    Source: Baydoun S. et al.2015 ,Flora Biodiversity in Hermon Mountain: Substantial Endemism

  18. Aammiq wetland: Aammiq wetland (280 ha), seven km south-west of Qabb Elias in the Beqaa valley, at c. 860 metres is inundated in winter, but in summer only two small areas of open water remain. The wettest area is composed of a mosaic of Juncus and Phragmites–Typha reedbeds. The area is traversed by Riachi stream, which on its raised banks, supports an avenue of Fraxinus syriaca (figure 14)

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    Figure 14: Ammiq wetland

  19. Inland waters: with the exception of Aammiq, the following are included within this habitat type: Qaraoun lake, Tanayel and Yammouneh ponds, Anjar channels, and springs, streams, rivers and fishponds, which are usually fringed with riverine or marshy vegetation (figure 15).Image removed.

    Figure 15: Taanayel Lake


Country Demography

The resident Lebanese population was estimated at around 3.76 million in 2007, with an additional 260,000 Palestinians (approximately, 2009) living in camps and other migrant workers (Yaacoub and Badre, 2012). Due to the recent Syrian war, Lebanon’s population has increased in an unprecedented manner. At the end of August 2014, the Syrian refugee population registered with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR was estimated to exceed 1.1 million in Lebanon, with almost 34,000 awaiting registration and around 53,000 Palestinian refugees coming from Syria. This does not include substantial numbers of Syrians in Lebanon who are not registered and that are consequently not counted. These were estimated at around 250,000. The number of refugees is equivalent to more than 25% of the total population of Lebanon (UNHCR, 2014a). The overall average household size in Lebanon has declined from 5.4 individuals per household in 1970, and 4.8 individuals in 1997, to 4.3 individuals in 2004 (The National Survey of Household Living Conditions, 2004-2005 most remarkable phenomenon to highlight is that the increase of Lebanon’s population is due to the influx of refugees since the national population is declining. Lebanon’s demographics between the sexes, the age profiles and the age pyramid are presented in Table 1 below.


Table 1: Distribution of Population According to Age, Sex, Male-to-Female Ratio and Age Groups
Source: The National Survey of Household Living Conditions (2004-2005)


Age Group




Male-to-Female Ratio Average1






















































































85 and above





Whole Population





1The male-to-female ratio varies usually at birth between 103% and 107% in a census. The reason behind the 113.7% figure within the age group (0-4) is the margin of error resulting from sampling, taking into consideration the size of the basic sample on the one hand, and the relatively small sample size regarding this age group, on the other.